Cramming is the addition of charges to a subscriber's telephone bill for services which were neither ordered nor desired by the client, or for fees for calls or services that were not properly disclosed to the consumer. These charges are often assessed by dishonest third-party suppliers of data and communication service that phone companies are required, by law, to allow the third-party to place on the bill.
Slamming is any fraudulent, unauthorized change to the default long-distance/Local carrier or DSL internet service selection for a subscriber's line, most often made by dishonest vendors desirous to steal business from competing service providers.
Ever received a call or phone number you’d like to track? It’s possible. Especially in a world filled with unwanted spam calls and unfamiliar numbers – technology such as TrapCall puts the power in your hands to look up exactly where a call came from, who it came from, and then take the right action depending on your reasons, whether in business or your personal life. Learn how to track a phone number with these simple tricks.
To get real-time results, IMEI & GPS call trackers can be used to track the location of a phone call. Apps like GPS Phone & Locate Any Phone are great with tracking mobile phones, even when the phone is not connected to the internet. You can know the GPS coordinates of a phone number within seconds. You can also track phone numbers by SMS or WhatsApp messages through these apps, and there’s no reason to call someone and embarrass them, making them feel ‘tracked’.
A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber.
Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. Many numbering plans subdivide their territory of service into geographic regions designated by a prefix, often called an area code or city code, which is a set of digits forming the most-significant part of the dialing sequence to reach a telephone subscriber.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has established a comprehensive numbering plan, designated E.164, for uniform interoperability of the networks of its member state or regional administrations. It is an open numbering plan, however, imposing a maximum length of 15 digits to telephone numbers. The standard defines a country calling code (country code) for each state or region which is prefixed to each national numbering plan telephone number for international destination routing.